MEASUREMENT AND UNITS CONVERSION CHART
1. TABLES OF METRIC UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
In the metric system of measurement, designations of multiples and sub-divisions of any unit may be arrived at by combining with the name of the unit the prefixes deka, hecto, and kilo meaning, respectively, 10, 100, and 1000, and deci, centi, and milli, meaning, respectively, one-tenth, one-hundredth, and one-thousandth. In some of the following metric tables, some such multiples and sub-divisions have not been included for the reason that these have little, if any currency in actual usage.

In certain cases, particularly in scientific usage, it becomes convenient to provide for multiples larger than 1 000 and for subdivisions smaller than one-thousandth. Accordingly, the following prefixes have been introduced and these are now generally recognized:

yotta, (Y), meaning 1024deci, (d), meaning 10-1
zetta, (Z), meaning 1021centi, (c), meaning 10-2
exa, (E), meaning 1018milli, (m), meaning 10-3
peta, (P), meaning 1015micro, (u), meaning 10-6
tera, (T), meaning 1012nano, (n), meaning 10-9
giga, (G), meaning 109pico, (p), meaning 10-12
mega, (M), meaning 106femto, (f), meaning 10-15
kilo, (k), meaning 103atto, (a), meaning 10-18
hecto, (h), meaning 102zepto, (z), meaning 10-21
deka, (da), meaning 101yocto, (y), meaning 10-24

Units of Length
10 millimeters (mm) = 1 centimeter (cm)
10 centimeters = 1 decimeter (dm) = 100 millimeters
10 decimeters = 1 meter (m) = 1000 millimeters
10 meters = 1 dekameter (dam)
10 dekameters = 1 hectometer (hm) = 100 meters
10 hectometers = 1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meters

Units of Area
100 square millimeters (mm2)= 1 square centimeter (cm2)
100 square centimeters = 1 square decimeter (dm2)
100 square decimeters = 1 square meter (m2)
100 square meters= 1 square dekameter (dam2) = 1 are
100 square dekameters = 1 square hectometer (hm2) = 1 hectare (ha)
100 square hectometers = 1 square kilometer (km2)

Units of Liquid Volume
10 milliliters (mL) = 1 centiliter (cL)
10 centiliters = 1 deciliter (dL) = 100 milliliters
10 deciliters= 1 liter1 = 1000 milliliters
10 liters = 1 dekaliter (daL)
10 dekaliters= 1 hectoliter (hL) = 100 liters
10 hectoliters = 1 kiloliter (kL) = 1000 liters

Units of Volume
1000 cubic millimeters (mm3) = 1 cubic centimeter (cm3)
1000 cubic centimeters = 1 cubic decimeter (dm3)
= 1 000 000 cubic millimeters
1000 cubic decimeters = 1 cubic meter (m3)
= 1 000 000 cubic centimeters
= 1 000 000 000 cubic millimeters

Units of Mass
10 milligrams (mg) = 1 centigram (cg)
10 centigrams= 1 decigram (dg) = 100 milligrams
10 decigrams= 1 gram (g) = 1000 milligrams
10 grams= 1 dekagram (dag)
10 dekagrams= 1 hectogram (hg) = 100 grams
10 hectograms= 1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams
1000 kilograms = 1 megagram (Mg) or 1 metric ton(t)

2. TABLES OF U.S. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT2
In these tables where foot or mile is underlined, it is survey foot or U.S. statute mile rather than international foot or mile that is meant.

Units of Length
12 inches (in) = 1 foot (ft)
3 feet = 1 yard (yd)
16-1/2 feet = 1 rod (rd), pole, or perch
40 rods = 1 furlong (fur) = 660 feet
8 furlongs = 1 U.S. statute mile (mi) = 5280 feet
1852 meters = 6076.115 49 feet (approximately)
= 1 international nautical mile

Units of Area3
144 square inches (in2) = 1 square foot (ft2)
9 square feet = 1 square yard (yd2)
= 1296 square inches
272-1/4 square feet = 1 square rod (sq rd)
160 square rods = 1 acre = 43 560 square feet
640 acre = 1 square mile (mi2)
1 mile square = 1 section of land
6 miles square = 1 township
= 36 sections = 36 square miles

Units of Volume3
1728 cubic inches (in3) = 1 cubic foot (ft3)
27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard (yd3)

Gunter's or Surveyors Chain Units of Measurement
0.66 foot (ft) = 1 link (li)
100 links = 1 chain (ch)
= 4 rods = 66 feet
80 chains= 1 U.S. statute mile (mi)
= 320 rods = 5280 feet

Units of Liquid Volume4
4 gills (gi) = 1 pint (pt)= 28.875 cubic inches
2 pints = 1 quart (qt) = 57.75 cubic inches
4 quarts = 1 gallon (gal) = 231 cubic inches
= 8 pints = 32 gills

Apothecaries Units of Liquid Volume
60 minims (min or ) = 1 fluid dram (fl dr or f)
= 0.225 6 cubic inch
8 fluid drams = 1 fluid ounce (fl oz or f)
= 1.804 7 cubic inches
16 fluid ounces = 1 pint (pt or )
= 28.875 cubic inches
= 128 fluid drams
2 pints= 1 quart (qt) = 57.75 cubic inches
= 32 fluid ounces = 256 fluid drams
4 quarts = 1 gallon (gal) = 231 cubic inches
= 128 fluid ounces = 1024 fluid drams

Units of Dry Volume5
2 pints (pt) = 1 quart (qt) = 67.200 6 cubic inches
8 quarts = 1 peck (pk) = 537.605 cubic inches
= 16 pints
4 pecks = 1 bushel (bu) = 2150.42 cubic inches
= 32 quarts

Avoirdupois Units of Mass6
[The "grain" is the same in avoirdupois, troy, and apothecaries units of mass.]
27-11/32 grains = 1 dram (dr)
16 drams = 1 ounce (oz)
= 437-1/2 grains
16 ounces = 1 pound (lb)
= 256 drams
= 7000 grains
100 pounds = 1 hundredweight (cwt)7
20 hundredweights = 1 ton
= 2000 pounds7

In "gross" or "long" measure, the following values are recognized:
112 pounds = 1 gross or long hundredweight7
20 gross or long hundredweights = 1 gross or long ton
= 2240 pounds7

Troy Units of Mass
[The "grain" is the same in avoirdupois, troy, and apothecaries units of mass.]
24 grains = 1 pennyweight (dwt)
20 pennyweights = 1 ounce troy (oz t)= 480 grains
12 ounces troy = 1 pound troy (lb t)
= 240 pennyweights = 5760 grains

Apothecaries Units of Mass
[The "grain" is the same in avoirdupois, troy, and apothecaries units of mass.]
20 grains = 1 scruple (s ap or )
3 scruples = 1 dram apothe-caries (dr ap or )
= 60 grains
8 drams apothecaries = 1 ounce apothecaries (oz ap or )
= 24 scruples = 480 grains
12 ounces apothecaries = 1 pound apothecaries (lb ap)
= 96 drams apothecaries
= 288 scruples = 5760 grains

3. NOTES ON BRITISH UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
In Great Britain, the yard, the avoirdupois pound, the troy pound, and the apothecaries pound areidentical with the units of the same names used in the United States. The tables of British linear measure, troy mass, and apothecaries mass are the same as the corresponding United States tables, except for the British spelling "drachm" in the table of apothecaries mass. The table of British avoirdupois mass is the same as the United States table up to 1 pound; above that point the table reads:

14 pounds = 1 stone
2 stones = 1 quarter = 28 pounds
4 quarters = 1 hundredweight = 112 pounds
20 hundredweight = 1 ton = 2240 pounds

The present British gallon and bushel--known as the "Imperial gallon" and "Imperial bushel" are, respectively, about 20 percent and 3 percent larger than the United States gallon and bushel. The Imperial gallon is defined as the volume of 10 avoirdupois pounds of water under specified conditions, and the Imperial bushel is defined as 8 Imperial gallons. Also, the subdivision of the Imperial gallon as presented in the table of British apothecaries fluid measure differs in two important respects from the corresponding United States subdivision, in that the Imperial gallon is divided into 160 fluid ounces (whereas the United States gallon is divided into 128 fluid ounces), and a "fluid scruple" is included. The full table of British measures of capacity (which are used alike for liquid and for dry commodities) is as follows

4 gills = 1 pint
2 pints = 1 quart
4 quart = 1 gallon
2 gallons = 1 peck
8 gallons (4 pecks) = 1 bushel
8 bushels = 1quarter

The full table of British apothecaries measure is as follows
20 minims = 1 fluid scruple
3 fluid scruples = 1 fluid drachm
= 60 minims
8 fluid drachm = 1 fluid ounce
20 fluid ounces = 1 pint
8 pints = 1 gallon (160 fluid ounces)

4. TABLES OF UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
(all underlined figures are exact)
Units of Length - International Measure8

Units of Length - Survey Measure8

Units of Area - International Measure9
(all underlined figures are exact)

Units of Area - Survey Measure9

Units of Volume
(all underlined figures are exact)

Units of Capacity or Volume - Dry Volume Measure

Units of Capacity or Volume - Liquid Volume Measure
(all underlined figures are exact)

Units of Mass Not Less Than Avoirdupois Ounces
(all underlined figures are exact)

Units of Mass Not Greater Than Pounds or Kilograms
(all underlined figures are exact)

5. TABLES OF EQUIVALENTS
In these tables it is necessary to differentiate between the "international foot" and the "survey foot;" the survey foot is underlined. When the name of a unit is enclosed in brackets (thus, [1 hand] . . . ), this indicates (1) that the unit is not in general current use in the United States, or (2) that the unit is believed to be based on "custom and usage" rather than on formal authoritative definition. Equivalents involving decimals are, in most instances, rounded off to the third decimal place except where they are exact, in which cases these exact equivalents are so designated. The equivalents of the imprecise units "tablespoon" and "teaspoon" are rounded to the nearest milliliter.

UNITS OF LENGTH
0.1 nanometer (exactly).
0.000 1 micrometer (exactly).
angstrom (Å)10----------------------- 0.000 000 1 millimeter (exactly).
0.000 000 004 inch.
120 fathoms (exactly).
1 cable's length----------------------- 720 feet (exactly).
219 meters.
1 centimeter (cm)---------------------- 0.393 7 inch.
1 chain (ch)--------------------------- 66 feet (exactly).
(Gunter's or surveyors)
20.1168 meters
1 decimeter (dm)----------------------- 3.937 inches.
1 dekameter (dam)---------------------- 32.808 feet.
1 fathom------------------------------- 6 feet (exactly).
1.828 8 meters.
1 foot (ft)---------------------------- 0.304 8 meter (exactly).
10 chains (surveyors) (exactly).
1 furlong (fur)------------------------ 660 feet (exactly).
1/8 U.S. statute mile (exactly).
201.168 meters.
[1 hand]------------------------------- 4 inches.
1 inch (in)---------------------------- 2.54 centimeters (exactly).
1 kilometer (km)----------------------- 0.621 mile.
1 league (land)------------------------ 3 U.S. statute miles (exactly).
4.828 kilometers.
1 link (li) (Gunter's or surveyors)---- 0.66 foot (exactly).
0.201 168 meter.
1 meter (m)---------------------------- 39.37 inches.
1.094 yards.
1 micrometer--------------------------- 0.001 millimeter (exactly).
0.000 039 37 inch.
1 mil---------------------------------- 0.001 inch (exactly).
0.025 4 millimeter (exactly).
1 mile (mi) (U.S. statute)11---------- 5280 survey feet (exactly).
1.609 kilometers.
1 mile (mi) (international)------------ 5280 international feet (exactly).
1 mile (mi) (international nautical)121.852 kilometers (exactly).
1.151 survey miles.
1 millimeter (mm)---------------------- 0.039 37 inch.
1 nanometer (nm)----------------------- 0.001 micrometer (exactly).
0.000 000 039 37 inch.
0.013 837 inch (exactly).
1 Point (typography)------------------- 1/72 inch (approximately).
0.351 millimeter.
1 rod (rd), pole, or perch------------- 16 1/2 feet (exactly).
5.029 2 meters.
1 yard (yd)---------------------------- 0.914 4 meter (exactly).

UNITS OF AREA
1 acre13---------------------------- 43 560 square feet (exactly).
0.405 hectare.
1 are------------------------------ 119.599 square yards.
0.025 acre.
1 hectare-------------------------- 2.471 acre.
[1 square (building)]--------------- 100 square feet.
1 square centimeter (cm2)----------- 0.155 square inch.
1 square decimeter (dm2)------------ 15.500 square inches.
1 square foot (ft2)----------------- 929.030 square centimeters.
1 square inch (in2)----------------- 6.451 6 square centimeters (exactly).
1 square kilometer (km2)------------ 247.104 acre.
0.386 square mile.
1 square meter (m2)----------------- 1.196 square yards.
10.764 square feet.
1 square mile (mi2)----------------- 258.999 hectares.
1 square millimeter (mm2)-----------0.002 square inch.
1 square rod (rd2), sq pole, or sq perch-----------------------25.293 square meters.
1 square yard (yd2)----------------- 0.836 square meter.

UNITS OF CAPACITY OR VOLUME
1 barrel (bbl), liquid----------------- 31 to 42 gallons.14
1 barrel (bbl), standard for fruits, 7056 cubic inches.
vegetables, and other dry------------ 105 dry quarts.
commodities, except cranberries3.281 bushels, struck measure.
5 826 cubic inches.
1 barrel (bbl), standard, cranberry---- 86 45/64 dry quarts.
2.709 bushels, struck measure.
1 bushel (bu) (U.S.) struck measure---- 2150.42 cubic inches (exactly).
35.239 liters.
[1 bushel, heaped (U.S.)]-------------- 2 747.715 cubic inches.
1.278 bushels, struck measure.15
[1 bushel (bu) (British Imperial) 1.032 U.S. bushels, struck measure
(struck measure)]---------------------- 2219.36 cubic inches.
1 cord (cd) (firewood)----------------- 128 cubic feet (exactly).
1 cubic centimeter (cm3)--------------- 0.061 cubic inch.
1 cubic decimeter (dm3)-------------- 61.024 cubic inches.
1 cubic foot (ft3)--------------------- 7.481 gallons.
28.316 cubic decimeters.
0.554 fluid ounce.
1 cubic inch (in3)----------------------- 4.433 fluid drams.
16.387 cubic centimeters.
1 cubic meter (m3)--------------------- 1.308 cubic yards.
1 cubic yard (yd3)--------------------- 0.765 cubic meter.
8 fluid ounces (exactly).
1 cup, measuring----------------------- 237 milliliters.
1/2 liquid pint (exactly).
1 dekaliter (daL)---------------------- 2.642 gallons.
1.135 pecks.
1/8 fluid ounce (exactly).
1 dram, fluid (or liquid) (fl dr0.226 cubic inch.
or f) (U.S.)------------------------ 3.697 milliliters.
1.041 British fluid drachms.
0.961 U.S. fluid dram.
[1 drachm, fluid (fl dr) (British)]---- 0.217 cubic inch.
3.552 milliliters.
231 cubic inches (exactly).
1 gallon (gal) (U.S.)------------------ 3.785 liters.
0.833 British gallon.
128 U.S. fluid ounces (exact-ly).
277.42 cubic inches.
[1 gallon (gal) (British Imperial)]---- 1.201 U.S. gallons.
4.546 liters.
160 British fluid ounces (exactly).
7.219 cubic inches.
1 gill (gi)---------------------------- 4 fluid ounces (exactly).
0.118 liter.
1 hectoliter (hL)---------------------- 26.418 gallons.
2.838 bushels.
1.057 liquid quarts.
1 liter (1 cubic decimeter exactly)---- 0.908 dry quart.
61.025 cubic inches
0.271 fluid dram.
1 milliliter (mL)---------------------- 16.231 minims.
0.061 cubic inch.
1 ounce, fluid (or liquid) (fl oz1.805 cubic inches.
or f)(U.S.)------------------------- 29.573 milliliters.
1.041 British fluid ounces.-
0.961 U.S. fluid ounce.
[1 ounce, fluid (fl oz) (British)]----- 1.734 cubic inches.
28.412 milliliters.
1 peck (pk)---------------------------- 8.810 liters.
1 pint (pt), dry---------------------- 33.600 cubic inches.
- 0.551 liter.
1 pint (pt), liquid-------------------- 28.875 cubic inches exactly.
0.473 liter.
67.201 cubic inches.
1 quart (qt), dry (U.S.)--------------- 1.101 liters.
0.969 British quart.
57.75 cubic inches (exactly).
1 quart (qt), liquid (U.S.)------------ 0.946 liter.
0.833 British quart.
69.354 cubic inches.
[1 quart (qt) (British)]--------------- 1.032 U.S. dry quarts.
1.201 U.S. liquid quarts.
3 teaspoons (exactly).
1 tablespoon, measuring---------------- 15 milliliters.
4 fluid drams.
1/2 fluid ounce (exactly).
1/3 tablespoon (exactly).
1 teaspoon, measuring----------------- 5 milliliters.
1-1/3 fluid drams.16
270.91 U.S. gallons.
1 water ton (English)------------------ 224 British Imperial gallons.
(exactly).

UNITS OF MASS
1 assay ton17 (AT)-------------------- 29.167 grams.
1 carat (c)---------------------------- 200 milligrams (exactly).
3.086 grains.
1 dram apothecaries (dr ap or )--- 60 grains (exactly).
3.888 grams.
1 dram avoirdupois (dr avdp)---------- 27-11/32 (= 27.344) grains.
1.777 grams.
1 gamma (y)--------------------------- 1 microgram (exactly).
1 grain-------------------------------- 64.798 91 milligrams (exactly).
1 gram (g)----------------------------- 15.432 grains.
0.035 ounce, avoirdupois.
1 hundredweight, gross or long18 112 pounds (exactly).
(gross cwt)-------------------------- 50.802 kilograms.
1 hundredweight, gross or short 100 pounds (exactly).
(cwt or net cwt)--------------------- 45.359 kilograms.
1 kilogram (kg)------------------------ 2.205 pounds.
1 microgram (ug) [the Greek letter mu
in combination with the letter g]--- 0.000 001 gram (exactly).
1 milligram (mg)----------------------- 0.015 grain.
437.5 grains (exactly).
1 ounce, avoirdupois (oz avdp)--------- 0.911 troy or apothecaries ounce.
28.350 grams.
1 ounce, troy or apothecaries480 grains (exactly).
(oz t or oz ap or )---------------- 1.097 avoirdupois ounces.
31.103 grams.
1 pennyweight (dwt)------------------ 1.555 grams.
1 point-------------------------------- 0.01 carat.
2 milligrams.
7000 grains (exactly).
1 pound, avoirdupois (lb avdp)--------- 1.215 troy or apothecaries pounds.
453.592 37 grams (exactly).
1 pound, troy or apothecaries 5760 grains (exactly).
(lb t or lb ap)---------------------- 0.823 avoirdupois pound.
373.242 grams.
1 scruple (s ap or )---------------- 20 grains (exactly).
1.296 grams.
2240 pounds (exactly).
1 ton, gross or long19----------------- 1.12 net tons (exactly).
1.016 metric tons.

2204.623 pounds.
1 ton, metric (t)---------------------- 0.984 gross ton.
1.102 net tons.
2000 pounds (exactly).
1 ton, net or short-------------------- 0.893 gross ton.
0.907 metric ton.

_______________________

1 By action of the 12th General Conference on Weights and Measures (1964) the liter is a special name for the cubic decimeter.

2 This section lists units of measurement that have traditionally been used in the United States. In keeping with the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, the ultimate objective is to make the International System of Units the primary measurement system used in the United States.

3 Squares and cubes of customary but not of metric units are sometimes expressed by the use of abbreviations rather than symbols. For example, sq ft means square foot, and cu ft means cubic foot.

4 When necessary to distinguish the liquid pint or quart from the dry pint or quart, the word "liquid" or the abbreviation"liq" should be used in combination with the name or abbreviation of the liquid unit.

5 When necessary to distinguish the dry pint or quart from the liquid pint or quart, the word "dry" should be used in combination with the name or abbreviation of the dry unit.

6 When necessary to distinguish the avoirdupois dram from the apothecaries dram, or to distinguish the avoirdupois dram or ounce from the fluid dram or ounce, or to distinguish the avoirdupois ounce or pound from the troy or apothecaries ounce or pound, the word"avoirdupois" or the abbreviation "avdp" should be used in combination with the name or abbreviation of the avoirdupois unit.

7 When the terms "hundredweight" and "ton" are used unmodified, they are commonly understood to mean the 100-pound hundredweight and the 2000-pound ton, respectively; these units may be designated "net" or "short" when necessary to distinguish them from the corresponding units in gross or long measure.

8 One international foot = 0.999 998 survey foot (exactly)

One international mile = 0.999 998 survey mile (exactly)

Note: 1 survey foot = 1200/3937 meter (exactly)
1 international foot = 12 x 0.0254 meter (exactly)
1 international foot = 0.0254 x 39.37 survey foot (exactly)
9 One square survey foot = 1.000 004 square international feet
One square survey mile = 1.000 004 square international miles
10 The angstrom is basically defined as 10-10 meter.

11 The term "statute mile" originated with Queen Elizabeth I who changed the definition of the mile from the Roman mile of 5000 feet to the statute mile of 5280 feet. The international mile and the U.S. statute mile differ by about 3 millimeters although both are defined as being equal to 5280 feet. The international mile is based on the international foot (0.3048 meter) whereas the U.S. statute mile is based on the survey foot (1200/3937 meter).

12 The international nautical mile of 1 852 meters (6 076.115 49...feet) was adopted effective July 1, 1954, for use in the United States. The value formerly used in the United States was 6 080.20 feet = 1 nautical (geographical or sea) mile.

13 The question is often asked as to the length of a side of an acre of ground. An acre is a unit of area containing 43 560 square feet. It is not necessarily square, or even rectangular. But, if it is square, then the length of a side is equal to = 208.710+ feet.

14 There are a variety of "barrels" established by law or usage. For example, Federal taxes on fermented liquors are based on a barrel of 31 gallons; many State laws fix the "barrel for liquids" as 31-1/2 gallons; one State fixes a 36-gallon barrel for cistern measurement; Federal law recognizes a 40-gallon barrel for "proof spirits"; by custom, 42 gallons comprise a barrel of crude oil or petroleum products for statistical purposes, and this is recognized "for liquids" by four States.

15 Frequently recognized as 1-1/4 bushels, struck measure.

16 The equivalent "1 teaspoon = 1-1/3 fluid drams" has been found by the Bureau to correspond more closely with the actual capacities of "measuring" and silver teaspoons than the equivalent "1 teaspoon = 1 fluid dram", which is given by a number of dictionaries.

17 Used in assaying. The assay ton bears the same relation to the milligram that a ton of 2000 pounds avoirdupois bears to the ounce troy; hence the mass in milligrams of precious metal obtained from one assay ton of ore gives directly the number of troy ounces to the net ton.

18 The gross or long ton and hundredweight are used commercially in the United States to only a very limited extent, usually in restricted industrial fields. The units are the same as the British "ton" and "hundredweight".

19 The gross or long ton and hundredweight are used commercially in the United States to only a very limited extent, usually in restricted industrial fields. The units are the same as the British "ton" and "hundredweight".

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